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Mr. Prepper Free Download (Incl. Animal Farm)
A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a committee of experts, based on input from scientists and the public. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use:
Markedly, the antibiotic consumption patterns in agriculture vary across regions and countries in the developing world, and even antibiotics that have been banned in other countries, including the developed countries, are still being used in most developing countries [9,10]. However, the antibiotic consumption profiles in developing countries are greatly influenced by the gross abuse and misuse of antibiotics due to their availability over the counter, through unregulated supply chains as well as the purchase without prescriptions . Also, Van Boeckel et al.  projected that the antibiotic consumption will approximately double in the BRICS countries consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The forecast is propelled by a shift to large-scale farms requiring the routine use of antibiotics to maintain the health of animals and productivity. The shift is caused by the progress in consumer demand for animal products. Resistance to antibiotics is an inherent side effect associated with the overuse, abuse, or substantial use of antibiotics [13,14].
The inclusion of nonessential antibiotics in animal feed for growth promotion purposes remains largely unregulated in the underdeveloped countries . The persistent use of these nonessential antibiotics in livestock farming can be attributed to the expansion and greater concentration of farmlands, inadequate governmental policies, and control over the use and sales of antibiotics, reduced use of infection control measures, and the unwillingness of farmers to execute delegated changes in farm practices . Developing countries continue to employ the antimicrobial agent for growth promotion to maintain the healthy state of the animals, to increase productivity, and raise incomes for the farmers [36,37]. However, these are contradictory to the Swedish agricultural data, as it recorded no loss of production after the ban exercise .
Contrarily, Sekyere , in their study, demonstrated the administration of antibiotics to pigs via the intravenous route for treatment, and in this case, shunned the exposure of healthy animals to antibiotics. However, this mode of administration might cause the accumulation of these drugs in adipose tissues, thereby posing a health risk to consumers of pork fat. In addition, Cromwell  mentioned that varying quantities of antibiotics are being employed at the different stages of livestock production, especially in pig farming, that incorporates four stages viz. gestation, farrowing, weaning, and finishing. Kim et al.  emphasized the significant difference in the use of antibiotics amongst piglets, fattening pigs, and sows during therapy and growth promotion; antibiotics are employed in pig farming for treatment, metaphylaxis, prophylaxis, and growth promotion. The authors further recorded a significant difference in the use of antibiotics between the three production systems in poultry farming, including breeding poultry, broilers, and laying hens. Accordingly, these may release different masses of remnant antibiotics into the environment .
Furthermore, antibiotics and their metabolites contained in stockpiled animal manure may seep through the pile to surface and groundwater, and also into the soil. This is especially so for antibiotics with high water affinity or which are water soluble, thus making their spread and ecotoxicity in the environment faster, and widely with the aid of water fluidity . In the same view, antibiotics can be introduced into the environment via soil fertilization with raw animal manure, irrigation with wastewater generated from farm activities, or via accidental release by runoffs from farms . Interestingly, Hamscher et al.  noted that dust contaminated with antibiotics from farms could equally serve as another route of environmental release of these drugs. Chee-Sanford et al.  also emphasized the release of antibiotics into the environment via the dispersal of feed and accidental spill of products, as well as discharges.
In addition, Sekyere  noted that pig farmers in some different districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana do not secure their antibiotics, thereby making them freely accessible for use and abuse by unauthorized persons and children. Also, the farmers disposed of their used antibiotic containers by merely throwing them into drains, refuse dumps, or onto bare ground, instead of burying them as recommended. The author further mentioned that these antibiotics were stored under suboptimal environmental conditions, vulnerable to temperature fluctuations that could accelerate their decomposition, thereby causing a reduction in their concentration and efficacy during administration. Such circumstances promote antibiotic resistance of bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tracts of the animals, due to constant exposure to sublethal levels of these antibiotics, or could even cause prompt administration of an overdose of the antibiotics which is noted to be inefficient. More especially, in commercial and intensive poultry farming, antibiotics may be administered to the entire animal population in feed or water, rather than targeting only the diseased animals. Thus, resistance becomes unavoidable . Interestingly, antibiotics produced naturally by environmental microorganisms, to deter competitors from living space and food, are gradually accumulating in the environment . Seemingly, antibiotics are released from their production facilities in high concentrations into the environment . Also, Sahoo and colleagues  noted that antibiotics could be found in the natural environment via improper disposal of out-of-date drugs from pharmaceutical shops, and unwanted, expired household pharmaceuticals.
Antibiotics have been reported to accumulate and form residues at varying concentrations in the tissues and organs of food animals, as presented in Table 1. Billah et al.  referred to these antibiotic residues as chemical residues or pharmacologically active substances representing either the parent compound or its degraded products, which are released, gathered, or stored in the edible tissues of the animal, due to their use in the prevention, treatment, and control of animal diseases. Undoubtedly, in Cameroon, Guetiya Wadoum et al.  demonstrated the presence of chloramphenicol and tetracycline residues in concentrations above the maximum residue limit (MRL) recommended by the European Union in 2010, in edible chicken tissues (muscle, gizzards, heart, liver, kidney) and eggs. Similarly, Billah et al.  detected ciprofloxacin in higher concentration in egg white, but in lower concentration in egg yolk during treatment of the birds. Also, Olufemi and Agboola  reported a high oxytetracycline residue in edible beef tissues of cattle slaughtered at Akure, in Nigeria, at violating levels beyond the MRL stipulated by WHO. However, of profound concern are circumstances in which diseased animals and animals undergoing therapy could be sold quickly to save funds, or could be slaughtered and used as food or feed for other animals . This causes difficulties in the prophylactic approach to handling epidemic diseases and health risks to consumers, as well as a negative influence on the environment. Van Ryssen  reported the use of poultry litter as a feed to farm animals in South Africa, since it is considered as a bulky protein supplement.
Ideally, no animal derived product should be consumed unless there is a complete absence of residual amounts of administered drugs. Nevertheless, the intriguing fact is that there are constant detectable levels of residues, identified via the help of markedly improved analytical methods. Therefore, the world regulatory authorities have set the MRL for various veterinary drugs that should be expected and considered safe in foods for human consumption [78,79]. According to Beyene , the diet, age and disease status of the animal added to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drugs, the extra-label drug use and the improper withdrawal times, amongst others, are the risk factors responsible for the development of residues. In this light, farmers are supposed to adhere and implement the right dosages of the antibiotics, as well as observed their withdrawal periods prior to slaughter and market, in a bid to avoid illegal concentrations of drug residues in the animal products. The withdrawal period (clearance or depletion time) defines the length of time required for an animal to metabolize the administered antibiotics under normal conditions, and also, the time needed for the antibiotic concentration in the tissues to reduce to a safe and acceptable level described as tolerance. It can equally be referred to, the time interval necessary between the last administration of the drug under normal conditions of use to animals and the time when treated animals can be slaughtered to produce foodstuff safe for public consumption. Depending on the drug product, route of administration, and dosage form (even with the same active ingredients), the withdrawal periods vary from a day to several days or weeks, and according to the target animals . 041b061a72